How To Install refer on CentOS 8
In this tutorial, we will discuss How To Install refer on CentOS 8
yum package managers.
Also, we will demonstrate how to uninstall and update
refer as well.
One-liner Install Command
If you are only interested in the installation command, here is a quick answer for you:
or if you use
sudo yum makecache && sudo yum -y install groff
sudo dnf makecache && sudo dnf -y install groff
But if you are interested in the details with step-by-step instructions, the following information will be helpful.
refer and How to Install It?
Short description: GNU troff text-formatting system
First things first, you will need access to a server or computer running CentOS 8. This guide was written specifically with a server running CentOS 8 in mind, although it should also work on older, supported versions of the operating system.
Also, make sure you are running a regular, non-root user with sudo privileges configured on your server. When you have an account available, log in as your non-root user to begin.
There are several ways to install refer on CentOS 8. You can use (links are clickable):
In the following sections, we will describe each method in detail. You can choose one of them or refer to the recommended one.
Install refer on CentOS 8 using dnf
First, update dnf packages database with
dnf by running the next command:
sudo dnf makecache --refresh
After updating database,
You can install refer using
dnf by running the
sudo dnf -y install groff
Install refer on CentOS 8 using yum
Because refer is available in CentOS 8’s default
it is possible to install it from these repositories using the
To begin, update local packages database with
yum using the following command.
sudo yum makecache --refresh
Now can install refer package on your server/computer by running the following command:
sudo yum -y install groff
How to upgrade (update) a single package refer using yum?
To update all the packages available on the system:
If you want to update a specific package like refer in this example you should use the following command:
yum update groff
To downgrade a package to an earlier version:
yum downgrade groff
How to Upgrade refer on CentOS 8 with dnf?
When you run the
dnf update, all system packages with available updates are updated.
However, if you want to upgrade a single package, then you would have to pass the package name as
the argument to the dnf update command.
dnf update groff
How To remove refer from CentOS 8
To uninstall only the
refer package you can execute
sudo dnf remove groff
Extra info and code examples
This package contains optional components of the GNU troff text-formatting system. The core package, groff-base, contains the traditional tools like troff, nroff, tbl, eqn, and pic. This package contains additional devices and drivers for output to DVI, HTML (when recommended packages are installed - see below), PDF, HP LaserJet printers, and Canon CAPSL LBP-4 and LBP-8 printers. The X75, X75-12, X100, and X100-12 devices, which allow groff output to be conveniently viewed on an X display using the standard X11 fonts, are now included here. They were previously in a separate package, groff-x11. Besides these, the groff package contains man pages describing the language and its macro sets, info documentation, and a number of supplementary programs: - gxditview, which is used to display the output of the X* devices, and can also be used to view PostScript output from groff; - grn, a preprocessor for pictures in the 'gremlin' format; - tfmtodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tdvi'; - hpftodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tlj4'; - afmtodit, which creates font files for use with 'groff -Tps'; - refer, which preprocesses bibliographic references for use with groff; - indxbib, which creates inverted indices for bibliographic databases used by 'refer'; - lkbib and lookbib, which search bibliographic databases; - addftinfo, which adds metric information to troff font files for use with groff; - pfbtops, which translates a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII for use with groff; - mmroff, a simple groff preprocessor which expands references in mm; - pic2graph, which converts PIC diagrams into cropped image files; - eqn2graph, which converts EQN equations into cropped image files; - pdfmom, which runs 'groff -mom' to produce PDFs. All the standard macro packages are supported. Some facilities only work if certain recommended packages are installed: - ghostscript, netpbm, psutils: required for HTML output; - imagemagick: required for the pic2graph and eqn2graph programs; - libpaper1: paper size detection in dvi, lbp, lj4, and ps devices (falls back to a4 if not installed); - perl: required for PDF output and for the chem preprocessor.
You now have a full guide on how to install
yum package managers.
Also, we showed how to update manually as a single package and different ways to uninstall
the refer from CentOS 8.